One clear objective of Nasa’s Artemis missions is to bring about a permanent presence on the Moon that will include commercial and industrial projects. The potential for commercial and industrial activity on the moon is well-known. The range is vast, including the extraction of oxygen from lunar debris (regolith), solar farming, the extraction of hydrogen and water, the extraction of minerals (including critical minerals) and their use as building materials. Activities on the moon are seen as key to paving the way to human presence on Mars, including by having certain resources already present on the moon to facilitate their use and transport at a lesser cost to Mars.Continue reading
In May 2021, CIPO added upwards of 60 cannabis- and marijuana-related terms to the Goods and Services Manual (the “Manual”).
Most of the new terms fall into Nice Classes 3 (non-medicated toiletry preparations), 5 (pharmaceuticals), and 30 (foodstuffs of plant origin). However, new terms have also been added in Class 16 (namely “printed publications in the field of cannabis”), 42 (“scientific research in the field of cannabis”) and 45 (“legal research in the field of cannabis”).Continue reading
At What Point Can Trademark Owners Claim Damages When a Registered Mark Infringes?
Under section 19 of the Canadian Trademarks Act, “… the registration of a trademark in respect of any goods or services, unless shown to be invalid, gives to the owner of the trademark the exclusive right to the use throughout Canada of the trademark in respect of those goods or services.” (our emphasis) That exclusive right is said to be infringed if another person, among other things, sells goods in association with a confusingly similar trademark or trade name. (s. 20(1)(a)) The owner can then institute legal proceedings against the allegedly infringing party (s. 52 ff) and, if they are successful, obtain monetary compensation or other remedies.
But what happens if a registered trademark is later expunged and the use of that mark is held to be infringing another trademark owner’s trademark rights? When does the protection of section 19 cease? In other words, when can another registered trademark owner obtain damages for that infringing use?Continue reading
Cease and desist letters are an important part of a lawyer’s tool kit: they notify the recipient of a claim, and ideally lead to the client resolving an issue without litigation. However, receiving such a letter can be unpleasant. They may even seem excessive, as if they were intended to achieve the maximum possible threatening effect. In Fluid Energy Group Ltd. v. Exaltexx Inc. (“Fluid v. Exaltexx”), Justice McHaffie of the Federal Court found that that indeed appeared to be the intention of Fluid’s letters, taking the unusual step of issuing an injunction ordering Fluid not to communicate with Exaltexx’s suppliers with respect to such suppliers’ alleged infringement of Fluid’s patents.
Where is the line between an appropriate cease and desist letter and one worthy of an injunction? In the case of letters alleging patent infringement, strangely enough, the answer may lie in section 7(a) the Trademarks Act, which was the basis for Exaltexx’s motion for the interlocutory injunction. That section reads: “No person shall … make a false or misleading statement tending to discredit the business, goods or services of a competitor…” This provision, however, must be read down so as to include only statements relating to the competitor’s intellectual property.Continue reading
Copyright and trade-mark owners whose IP is infringed may seek a variety of remedies against the perpetrators, including damages, injunctive relief and legal costs. Psychologically though, destruction and delivery up may provide the most satisfaction. Specifically provided for in the respective statutes, these remedies allow the successful plaintiff to either compel the infringer to destroy the counterfeit items under oath or actually take possession of them. In this post, we survey destruction and delivery up orders granted and denied in 2019. Overall, the year’s rulings are mixed, demonstrating that even as the victim of infringement, “you can’t always get what you want.”
Luxury goods are common targets for counterfeiters, as this year’s crop of destruction and delivery up orders illustrates. Appearing four times before the Federal Court was Nathalie Marie Tobey, aka Nathalie Henrie. Operating out of a clandestine retail establishment on Old Yonge Street, Ms. Tobey was accused of selling counterfeit Givenchy, Louis Vuitton, Dior and Celine merchandise. Her defence was essentially that a well-informed member of the public would not confuse the goods she was selling with the plaintiffs’. Justice Norris dismissed this defence as having “no hope of success whatsoever,” before ordering the delivery up of all goods bearing the plaintiff’s subject trademarks, at least, those not already seized by the Toronto Police Service.Continue reading